Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of intact biological tissues was first
reported by two groups: Moon and Richards using P-31 MRS to examine intact
red blood cells in 1973, and Hoult et al. using P-31 MRS to examine excised
leg muscle from the rat in 1974. Since then MRS has been applied to almost
every organ of the body including brain, heart, liver, kidney, prostate,
and extremities. MRS is useful for looking at disorders of metabolism, tumors
and certain inflammatory and ischemic diseases. Most of the work with in
vivo MRS in humans has been in the brain. Abnormalities have been seen, sometimes
with earlier detection than for any other diagnostic procedure short of biopsy,
in primary brain tumors, infections such as AIDS, demyelinating disorders
such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and stroke.
Spectroscopic changes are documented in a variety of enzyme deficiencies, mitochondrial abnormalities, dystrophies, inflammatory myopathies, and thyroid disease. In muscle these diseases include phosphofructokinase deficiency, amyloglucosidase deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, hypothyroidism, and congestive heart failure.
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